THE similarity of the course pursued to-day by the American Republic, to that taken by the Roman Republic just previous to the establishment of the empire, is in fact not lost to the view of American imperialism. Although they fatuously predict a different outcome from the working of the forces which established would-be despotism two thousand years ago. For example, from the following taken from a paper read by Samuel I. Irish, before the Social Science Association at Southampton, September 6:—
“I know that in the busy world of to-day close comparisons are somewhat out of date, and yet it may not be inappropriate to recall to mind that nineteen hundred years ago three men, Roman citizens, divided the world among them, Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius Lepidus took Northern Africa and Spain, Antony took Egypt and the East, and Octavius took Italy and the rest of the world. But it was not many years before Octavius, by force of arms, became Cesar Augustus, the ruler of the world. And then it was that the gates of the temple of Janus were closed, which signified, under the Roman law and custom, that war had ceased and that universal peace reigned throughout the empire. And then, too, it was that the Prince of Peace was born.
“And so, as I look into the future, I see again the world divided into three, but this time it will be three nations and not three individuals who will divide the world among them. If not in actual territorial divisions, at least in dominating political influence. And now three nations will be, in fact are, named in the reverse order of their ultimate political importance. First, Russia, the grim specter of the North, that seeks to enfold in her chill embrace the destinies of the world. Second, Great Britain and her colonies, a vast and magnificent federated empire that will be standing for ity and order, and third and last, the United States of America. And the last shall be first.
“And as I seek to draw aside the veil still more and gaze still further down through the corridors of the centuries I see again Cesar Augustus sole ruler of the world. But this time it will not be a single individual, but the imperial democracies of the English-speaking race, ruling with directing mind and guiding with sympathetic, outstretched hand a Christian world, bound together by the iron bands of order, justice and of peace.”
The picture of “imperial democracy” ruling a Christian world is pleasing enough, but is one that can never materialize; for imperialism is not democracy and democracy is not imperialism. The establishment of imperialism marks the end of republicanism. It is impossible to separate imperialism from empire, and empire  from emperor. The rule of the many over themselves is republicanism. This gone, there must follow the rule of a few, and eventually of one over the many; and that rule was never anything else than despotism.